Thought I'd enjoy sharing my own personal "cannon"of the Potter universe that I have, and the rough chronology.
This is a long one, so full stuff after the break!
So to start off, I apologize that I'm a bit lazy to cite some of this stuff, but I'm going off of pottermore material for the most part, but I will do my best from memory, and you, the reader, *should* be able to refute the fannon at your leisure.
First, we have this... humanity discovers magic. This happened very rarely, and only certain people could use magic. At this point, humanity does see/fight dragons, hippogriffs and such, because the willingness to not see things hadn't quite taken hold. Some creatures may not have been seen, and others may have been, as muggles, witches and wizards begin to form civilization. This continues through with small amounts of wizards and witches through history, believing their magic to be a form of divine gift (thought there were cases of fraud as muggles thought anyone could do it) with priests/shamans/oracles in history using magic to help the primarily muggle civilization. This continues to Roman era, which most likely would have helped spread spells and the latin incantations, which would explain similarities in magic in the european region, and could be a way that other magical advances were shared with other geographic regions, with one thing that seems to be either a common feature in all magical communities or another being the invention of magical conduits, such as wands or staves, with materials varying amongst magical communities. This is evidenced slightly through Olivanders as it started in 382 BC during the Greek era, and set up shop in Britain. Though for the most part, wantless magic was more normal among skilled practitioners, with the possibility that wordless spells would have been more normal as well, in theory making the older witches and wizards of the Roman era more powerful/fearsome than contemporary wizards and witches.
This continues up to the fall and collapse of Rome, as witches and wizards differentiate more based on region due to the loss of communication in Rome, and most likely as muggles entered the dark ages, they gained a resistance to seeing certain magical creatures, and most likely begun attributing them as devils, curses or witchcraft. It is in this period that wizards and witches most likely begun to "retreat" as muggles lost trust in magic, and begun misattributing certain things to things of a religious nature (something wizards and witches may have continued doing to some extent, but to what extent I do not know, but due to a "fuller" world view, they most likely kept advances that were lost to muggles). This continues into the Aurthurian era, where there were advances to try and mend the connection with witches and wizards by Merlin, but this ultimately failed, with most witches and wizards keeping to secrecy or adopting professions that would be able to hide their magic, like apothecaries or healing (though there were quite a few frauds in the profession as well. As muggles did not know what they were mixing and did not have the magical ability to bring out a potion's potency, instead they ended up making rather powerful poisons most of the time).
Witches and wizards managed to successfully hide themselves and during the age of exploration, potions/wand making most likely proliferated with trade as wizards and witches occasionally went for exploration. However, it is wholly possible that this advancement happened much earlier than the age of exploration due to progress in broomstick creation, and enchantment of brooms to fly for longer distances at greater speeds. This continued to the modern era, with wizarding schools being formed out of a common interest by the magical community to remain hidden. This is partially backed up with the international statute of secrecy, though it is more probable to believe that the magical community gained new members along with colonialism, with European witches and wizards competing to find more magical communities to add into their own, as ministries gradually developed in the Americas, which may or may not have taken the international statute as seriously as their European brethren, and instead formed a magical community on Roanoke, which was rendered Unplottable, as well as Unplottable settlements in mountains and deserts, with a few settlements near muggle cities, like New York.
Advancing further, during the World Wars, the first one was highly absent of wizard participation for the most part, as they were in hiding. In comparison the second war, the one against Grindlewald, was fought on a slightly larger scale. While the scale paled in comparison to the muggle wars at the time, groups of talented witches and wizards formed to stop him. Grindlewald's plan was to unite the Hallows and become a master of death, in order to kill all the muggles, and there is a possibility that he had some influence in the Axis war effort, to attempt to maximize casualties in order to weaken not only those wizards and witches that fought him, but the muggles that he would later subjugate and attempt to rule over. However, Grindlewald was defeated by Dumbledore and failed to succeed in his plan, only obtaining one of the Deathly Hallows.
Voldemort later came to power, and was influenced by the work of Grindlewald slightly, but was pushed further towards blood purity, instead of muggle subjugation. The time past Grindlewald had been a slow adaptation of some muggle devices to wizards, namely the radio and camera, while others in the magical community took interest to enchanting and studying muggle artifacts, like cars and rubber ducks, to determine their value and creation. Understandably, the magical community's pride kept advancement stagnated, but the higher stagnation came with the rise of Voldemort, as a fascination with muggle artifacts could result in death by death eater. The first fall of Voldemort provided some safety for these activities to continue, but were still limited by the international statute of secrecy. The limits of the statute and wizarding law in the UK did limit enchantments of ordinary objects, though there is a possibility that this limitation was primarily in older more established magical communities, with americans being more likely to meddle with muggle invention and adapt them for use by magical folk (ok evidenceless speculation here). Upon the defeat of Voldemort, it is probable that this trend went back up, as wizards and witches may have started meddling further with muggle studies, and the field most likely increased as new inventions for the wizarding community arrived adapted from the muggle communities.
Beyond this I can't speculate much further, but it's probable that the ideas of blood purity are falling out of favor, as evidenced by the influx of half-bloods and muggle born in slytherin, and as wizards and witches adapt to muggle technology and become more connected with the non-magical community as a result.
As a *rough* list of events
Humanity finds magic
Magic is used and misattributed as a divine force
Muggles may still see magical creatures
Wands/other magical conduits are made
Principles of magic formed
Muggles lose ability to see some magical creatures
Roman era spreads new spells and incantation through the world.
Fall of Rome
Retreat from Muggles/rise of pure blood families
Wizard Exploration* may have started contemporarily with muggles or at least 10 years prior.
Statute of Secrecy
Wizard colony of Roanoke
Salem Witch Trials
Wizarding schools founded in the United States
Quidditch World Cup
"Modern" Wizard Age (experimentation with muggle artifacts)
Rise of Voldemort/Decrease in the modern age
1st Fall of Voldemort/pick up in the modern age
2nd Rise and Fall of Voldemort
Rekindling of the "modern" age
Now if you want me to expand more on this, just let me know here. I'm happy to provide if it's asked for!